The symptoms of sickle cell disease (SCD) as well as underlying disease processes affect sleep across development, which has important implications for academic and behavioural functioning and overall health outcomes in children and adolescents with SCD. High frequencies of arousals and fragmented sleep related to sleep disorders that are more prevalent in SCD coupled with sleep-interfering disease symptoms (i.e. pain, enuresis, hypoxaemia) result in chronic sleep disruption that can affect development and health outcomes. Rates of sleep-disordered breathing conditions, including obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA),1–3 periodic limb movements (PLMS),4 restless legs syndrome4 and nocturnal enuresis5,6 have been documented in children and adolescents with SCD compared to healthy peers. In children without chronic illness, sleep problems have been linked to behaviour problems,7 poor academic outcomes,8 depression8 and reduced cognitive performance.9 A greater understanding of the interplay between SCD, health outcomes and sociodemographic factors, which are known to affect sleep,10 is necessary to target and improve sleep in children with SCD. This review describes highly prevalent sleep disorders in SCD, disease factors associated with disrupted sleep and the sociodemographic contributions to sleep patterns in children and adolescents with SCD.