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New Treatment Approaches in Chronic Kidney Disease-associated Anaemia


treated group compared with the control group (37 versus 20%, p = not significant); this difference became statistically significant when analysed using multivariate analysis. Further larger studies need to demonstrate that these membranes have significant positive clinical effects in order to balance high treatment costs.


Conclusion


RHuEPO has been available to treat anaemia in patients with CKD for the past twenty years. More recently, long-acting rHuEPOs with modified molecular structures have also entered the market offering the advantage of less-frequent administration schedules. All these molecules are effective in correcting anaemia and decreasing transfusion needs. However, the treatment of anaemia with rHuEPO or its analogues is quite expensive, given that their synthesis, like that of other biomolecules, is complex. New ESAs are or will be even more expensive than rHuEPO because of the high costs of the pharmacological research, which has not yet been covered by years of selling. Moreover, safety concerns have been raised recently about the use of ESAs that may be associated with increased


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